Sunflower (Helianthus annus) from the Composee compound family and its seed contains 15%-16% crude protein. Sunflower meal as a source of calcium and phosphorus is similar to other oilseed meal, and no mineral deficiency or toxicity has been reported so far. This experiment was performed to determine the effect of different levels of sunflower meal with and without enzyme phytase and its effect on carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broiler chickens.
Oilseed meal, especially when high in oil, can have a significant effect on the energy content of the diet. Sunflower meal has good levels of protein but its lysine content is lower than that of soybeans and is the most important limiting amino acid. The fibers are high and, if they originate from the grain cover, will be slightly digestible and must be finely milled or crushed before use.On solvent removal, on average, about 220 grams of crude fiber and 430 grams of crude protein per kilogram of dry matter. Its metabolizable energy in poultry is equal to 1.8 MJ / kg dry matter. If it is mechanically separated, it has higher fat, crude fiber and lower protein content. It has a medium or good palatable meal and is only slightly laxative in high nutritional levels.Chicken diets are 0% broilers at 5% and mother and laying at 10%. 100 grams of sunflower protein contain 8.3 g lysine and 3.8 g arginine and 6.3 g methionine and 2.6 g leucine. It also has many other amino acids.
A look at the composition of sunflower amino acids, especially the amount of lysine and methionine, proves the value of this meal in poultry nutrition. Of animal origin, it makes it possible to achieve the expected quality of broilers.The low levels of lysine and threonine that can be used for poultry in this meal can be offset by the contribution of fish meal or meat powder. Lysine is needed in the diet.The presence of chlorogenic acid in this meal can exert an inhibitory effect on the function of hydrolytic enzymes if large amounts of sunflower meal are used. Shell-based sunflower meal can make up about 8-10% of the broiler diet.
Plants contain compounds that make minerals inaccessible. These minerals form complexes as minerals, thereby disrupting the absorption of minerals by the intestine, which they call kylates. One of the mineral inhibitors in cereal is phytate or phytic acid and its systematic name is myoinositol-hexa ciza.The phosphate groups are formed on a low-molecular-weight 6-carbon molecule of about 660 daltons. Of course, in addition to the term phytate, two other terms, phytic acid and phytine are used, of course, the term phytine refers to the complex combination of IP6 hexafosphate with potassium, magnesium and calcium, most commonly found in plants.While phytic acid lacks IP6 hexafosphate and reduce the availability of phosphorus and other elements such as zinc, magnesium and calcium as well as the utilization of other nutrients such as protein. The phytase enzyme is rich in phytase enzymes by the fungus Philaptus especially Aspergillus and commercial production of phytase for use as an exogenous enzyme supplement in the diet is easier than its microbial cultivation.While phytic acid lacks IP6 hexafosphate and reduce the availability of phosphorus and other elements such as zinc, magnesium and calcium as well as the utilization of other nutrients such as protein. Phytase enzyme by Phylactus fungi especially Aspergillus is rich in phytase enzyme and commercial production of phytase for use as an exogenous enzyme supplement in diet is easier than microbial culture.Most phytases decompose to some degree at 65° C.
Therefore, phytase enzymes should be added after processing in pellets or other food processing methods where high temperature is used to control salmonella. The ability of poultry to use phytate phosphorus is limited and by adding phytase to the poultry diet, the need for phosphorus supplementation in the diet and excretion through the feces is reduced. Phytase is actually a phosphatase that hydrolyzes the ester bonds of phosphoric acid and inositol.